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Frank Norris

Like Zola and the European naturalists, Frank Norris (1870-1902) focused on writing realistic fictional explorations of the effects of heredity and environment. In the course of his tragically brief career, he came to view the novel as a mode of social betterment. Works such as McTeague, The Octopus, and The Pit offer authentic and highly readable portraits of California life at the turn of the 20th century.