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Anemones and fish, ants and acacia trees, fungus and trees, buffaloes and oxpeckers--each of these unlikely duos is an inimitable partnership in which the species' coexistence is mutually beneficial. More specifically, they represent examples of defensive mutualism, when one species receives protection against predators or parasites in exchange for offering shelter or food to its partner species. Explores the Diverse Range of Defensive Mutualisms Involving Microbial Symbionts The past 20 years, since this phenomenon first ...

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